自然资源部岩岩溶动力学重点实验室

我国西南岩溶区表层岩溶带的水文动态分析

2009-05-01KDL 2336

Hydrological character of epikarst in Southwest China
Abstract : Ten epikarst springs were monitored with manual measurement or sensors for more than one year. These epikarst springs widely distributed in southwestern China , representing subtropical epikarst . Monthly discharge andcontinued water lever curves of the springs indicate that strong hydrological unsteadiness is the typical characteristicof a subtropical epikarst spring. This strong hydrological unsteadiness results from the function of epikarst and monsoon climate.The ten epikarst springs were classified into two groups , namely , karst hill epikarst and peak cluster epikarst . It is reasonably to consider that the two types of epikarst are typical in southwestern China. Karsthill epikarst is covered by more consecutive soil , is apt to produce concentrated flow and is not as unsteady as peak cluster one. Epikarst spring in dolomite is not as unsteady as that in limestone. Epikarst covered by forest has not the same strong hydrological unsteadiness as epikarst covered by shrub. Thick soil and forest may reduce concentrated recharge which induced sudden increase and decrease of spring discharge or water lever. Epikarst indolomite has more pore and fissures and less conduits than epikarst in limestone.
Key words : hydrological monitoring ; epikarst sping ; karst hill epikarst ; peak cluster epikarst

摘要: 以西南地区10 个表层岩溶泉的长期观测和自动化监测数据为基础,分析了表层岩溶带的水文动态
特点。表层岩溶泉的月径流量变化和连续的水位变化表明表层岩溶带具有水文动态不稳定的共性,不稳
定性和表层岩溶带的功能和降水有关。根据表层岩溶带的形态和水文动态变化特点进行分类,认为以间
互型碳酸盐岩为基础的溶丘洼地表层岩溶带和以连续型碳酸盐岩为基础的峰丛洼地表层岩溶带是西南
岩溶区两种重要的表层岩溶带类型。溶丘洼地表层岩溶带相对于峰丛洼地表层岩溶带具有较连续的土
壤盖层和较大的表层岩溶泉密度以及较稳定的水文动态变化。白云岩上发育的表层岩溶带水文动态比
灰岩稳定,森林覆盖下的表层岩溶带的水文动态比灌木林稳定。表层岩溶带的水文动态受控于它的补给
类型和径流特征。土壤层的厚度和植被类型会使表层岩溶带集中补给的比例发生变化,而岩性则通过影
响表层岩溶带的空隙类型来控制径流特征。
关键词: 水文观测; 表层岩溶泉; 溶丘洼地型; 峰丛洼地型

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