Part II Report from National Working Groups of IGCP448
Short Report of the Spanish Working Group
Representative: Bartolome Andreo Navarro (firstname.lastname@example.org). Department of Geology. Faculty of Science. University of Malaga. E-29071 Málaga. Tel. 34-95-2132004 y Fax. 34-95-2132000.
Secretary: Juan José Durán Valsero (email@example.com). Spanish Geological Survey (IGME). Ríos Rosas, 23. E-28003 Madrid. Tel. 34-91-3495852 y Fax. 34-91-3495742
The Spanish Working Group within Project 448 of the IGCP was established at the 5th Spanish Geological Congress, held in Alicante (Spain) on 13 July 2000, and it is made up by 31 participants (see web page for more details). At this foundational meeting the delegate and the secretary of the Working Group were elected and the main guidelines for future activity laid out, both referring internal functioning of the Group and to its principal activities. The research work of these first year have focused in different aspects of Spanish karst ecosystems: study of the functioning of karst systems, groundwater exploitation and vulnerability mapping of carbonate aquifers to the contamination and, finally, study of the environmental impact produced by visitors in karstic cavities.
The characterization of karstic aquifers has been carried out by way of their natural responses, (1) hydrodynamic (outflows of the springs), (2) hydrochemistry (chemical and isotopic composition) and (3) hydrothermic data (some of the springs presents thermal signatures). First results show the utility of the applied techniques to a better understanding of the hydrogeological systems in the geological context in which they are found, some of them in relation to deep flows related to fractures of regional importance. These hydrodynamic and hydrochemistry responses has been used to delineate a preliminary clasiffication of southern Spanish carbonate aquifers, which permits to differentiate systems of karstic behaviour (s.s.) in the western part, where rainfall is higher (> 1.000 mm) than lower karstified systems of the eastern part, where rainfall is lower (< 600 mm). Nevertheless, when this comparison is be done between southern Spanish karstic aquifers and those in the rest of Europe (i.e.) some difficulties arise, probably due to different climatic conditions.
Also inside the GTE, some other works related to karstic hydrogeology are being developed, as (1) exploitation of hydric resources and (2) vulnerability mapping to groundwater contamination in some Spanish carbonate aquifers. These aspects, especially important in the western Mediterranean, are consequence of the interaction between human and karstic ecosystems, this last point of special interest in the Project 448 of the IGCP. First results are concerned to groundwater exploitation in some southern and eastern Spanish carbonate aquifers (Sierra of Gador-Dalias aquifer and sierra of Crevillente) in these two areas karstic aquifers constitute an important water supply. In vulnerability mapping to groundwater contamination, first results obtained are collected in several works in which a comparison of different methods have been done in Torremolinos and Sierra Libar carbonate aquifers.
In relation to karstic cavities an important activity has been carried out closely related to the Project 448: (1) control of enviromental parameters and (2) studies of speleothems. All available data permit to achieve the importance of recording the microclimate parameters in two important Spanish touristic caves (Nerja and Altamira) for theirs scientific knowledge of karstic ecosystems and for an adequate management and conservation. In relation to endokarstic deposits, some conclusions show that seasonal variations of CO2 better than temperatures ones, drive the calcic carbonate precipitation in Nerja Cave. Also, the interaction processes between water-air-rock in karstic system have been an advanced research. On the other hand, it has been necessary to start a discussion about a newer easy and practical speleothems classification according to the experience of some members of the Spanish Working Group.
The biological investigations within the Spanish Working Group of the Project 448 have been carried out in the two sites from South Spain: in the Sierra de las Nieves a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve and the Nerja Cave ecosystem.
All the results have been published in national and international journals or congress proceedings listed below.
ANDREO, B.; CARRASCO, F.; DURÁN, J.J.; FERNÁNDEZ, G.; LINARES, L.; LÓPEZ-GETA, J.A.; MAYORGA, R. and VADILLO, I. (2000): Hydrogeological investigations for groundwater exploitation in the Sierras Blanca and Mijas (Málaga, southern Spain). Hydrogéologie, 3: 19-33.
ANDREO, B.; CARRASCO, F.; JIMÉNEZ, P. and VADILLO, I. (2000): A comparative study of two carbonate aquifers in Southern Spain. International Symposium on present state and future trends of karst studies, Marmaris (Turquía), in press.
LIÑÁN, C; ANDREO, B.; CARRASCO, F. and VADILLO, I. (2000): Considerations on the influence of CO2 in the hydrochemistry of drip water in the Nerja Cave (Province of Málaga). Geotemas, 1(3): 341-344. [In Spanish]
VÍAS, J.M.; PERLES, M.J., ANDREO, B. and CARRASCO, F. (2000): Aplicación del método DRASTIC para la cartografía de vulnerabilidad a la contaminación del acuífero carbonatado de Torremolinos (Sierra de Mijas, provincia de Málaga). Geogaceta, 27:179-182 [In Spanish]
VÍAS, J.M.; ANDREO, B;. PERLES, M.J., and CARRASCO, F. (2001): Application of several methods of contamination vulnerability mapping in a carbonate aquifer from South Spain. 3rd International Conference on Future Groundwater at Risk, Lisbon (Portugal), in press.
LONGO, C.A.; ANDREO, B.; CARRASCO, F.; CUCCHI, F.; VÍAS, J. and JIMÉNEZ, P. (2001): Comparison of two contamination vulnerability maps obtained by the SINTACS method in two carbonate aquifers (S Spain). 7ht Conference on Limestone Hydrology and Fissured Media, Besançon (France), in press.
CARRASCO, F.; JIMÉNEZ, P.; ANDREO, B.; LÓPEZ-CHICANO; MARÍN, A.; LIÑÁN, C. and VADILLO, I. (2001): Comparative preliminar study of the hydrogeological behaviour of various carbonate aquifers from the Betic Cordillera. 7th Symposium of Hydrogeology, Murcia (Spain), 381-391. [In Spanish]
TINAUT, A. and LÓPEZ, F. (2001): Sociability and ecological constraints (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Sociobiology, 38(2): 1-9.
ANDREU, J.M.; ESTÉVEZ, A.; GARCÍA-SÁNCHEZ, E. and PULIDO-BOSCH, A. (2000): The exploitation of the Crevillente aquifer by means of the Los Suizos gallery. National Congress on Water Management in Deficit Basins. Orihuela (Alicante). [In Spanish]
ANDREU, JM.; PULIDO-BOSCH, A. and ESTÉVEZ, A. (2001): Aquifer overexploitation in Alicante (Spain). 3rd International Conference on Future Groundwater at Risk, Lisbon (Portugal), in press.
LÓPEZ-CHICANO, M.; CERÓN, J.C.; VALLEJOS, A. and PULIDO-BOSCH, A. (2001): Geochemistry of thermal springs, Alhama de Granada (southern Spain). Applied Geochemistry; 16, 1153-1163
LÓPEZ-CHICANO, M.; BOUAMAMA, M.; VALLEJOS, A. and PULIDO-BOSCH, A. (2001): Factors which determine the hydrogeochemical behaviour of karstic springs. A case study from the Betic Cordilleras, Spain. Applied Geochemistry; 16, 1179-1192
SÁNCHEZ MORAL, S.; SOLER, V. and CAÑAVERAS, J.C. (2000): Microenvironmental characterization in shallow karst systems (Altamira Cave, Cantabria). Geotemas, 1(3):345-349. [In Spanish]
CAÑAVERAS, J.C.; SÁNCHEZ-MORAL S, SOLER, V. and SÁIZ-JIMÉNEZ, C. (2001): Microorganisms and microbially induced fabrics in cave walls. Geomicrobiology Journal, in press
GROTH, I.; SCHUMANN, P.; LAIZ, L.; SÁNCHEZ-MORAL, S.; CAÑAVERAS, J.C. and SÁIZ-JIMÉNEZ, C. (2001): Geomicrobiology study of the Grotta dei Cervi, Porto Badisco, Italy Geomicrobiology Journal, in press.
RODRÍGUEZ ESTRELLA, T. (2001): The deep aquifer. A breath which can extend the agony of the overexploitated aquifers from the Jumilla and Yecla plateau (Murcia)?. 7th Symposium of Hydrogeology, Murcia (España), 717-732. [In Spanish]
BAREA, J.; CASAS, J.; DURÁN, J.J.; LÓPEZ-MARTÍNEZ, J. and MARTÍN DE VIDALES J.L. (2000): Paleoenvironmental interest in the study of the endokarstic detrital sediments dimentos. Application to the cavities from the center of the Iberian Penninsula. Boletin Geológico y Minero, 111(2 and 3): 17-32. [In Spanish]
DURÁN, J.J.; VALLEJO, M.and LÓPEZ-MARTÍNEZ, J. (2000). New proposal of classification of speleothems. Geotemas, 1(3), 337-340. [In Spanish]
VALLEJO, M. and DURÁN, J.J.(2000): Mixture of deep and meteoric waters in a karstic spring: analytical study usig hydrochemical, isotopic and radioctive techniques. International Symposium on present state and future trends of karst studies, Marmaris (Turquía), in press.
The main activities scheduled for next year by the Spanish Working Group of the Project 448 are:
- to participate actively in the international meeting of the Project which will take place in Besançon (on September 2001) during the 7th Conference on Limestone Hydrology and the meeting of the 620 European Action COST 620.
- to organize its national meeting in Nerja (Malaga) on November 2001 coinciding with the 31th Scientific Session of the Spanish Geological Society.
- to organize the next international the 2002 international meeting of the Project coinciding with the 2nd International Symposium on Geology supported by the Nerja Cave Foundation (seehttp://www.hidrogeo.uma.es for more information).
Russia-China-France-Poland, Human Impact on Karst
Environment in Continental Scale, Report of the meeting during 20th speleological School held in Cieszyn in days of 11-16, 02, 2001
by M. Pulina, Andrzej Tyc
Department of Geomorphology, University of Silesia
Ul. Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
Discussions and meetings during 20th Speleological School organized by the Department of Geomorphology, University of Silesia shows great importance of closer collaboration of karst researchers of participating in School representatives of the scientific institutes in Europe and Asia. During the main scientific session, with participation over 100 persons from Bulgaria, Canada, China, Czech Rep., France, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain and Ukraine, the information on project IGCP 448 has been presented. As a result of the meeting and discussions in smaller groups several points were taking into account.
1. Institutions representing some countries: France (University of Bordeaux), Canada (University of Quebec in Montreal), Bulgaria (Academy of Science in Sofia) and Poland (University of Silesia, University of Poznan and other institutions), would like to join the IGCP 448 project. Registration forms from individual participants will be sent to the Prof. Yuan Daoxian, Institute of Karst Geology in coming future.
2. After discussion performed by four parties: Russia (Prof. Evgenij Sklarov, Institute of Earth’s Crust, Russian Academy of Sciences in Irkutsk), France (Prof. Jean-Noel Salomon, University Bordeaux III), China (Prof. Yuan Daoxian, represented by Dr. Ma Teng, Hohai University) and Poland (Prof. Marian Pulina, University of Silesia), propose of organization karst meeting- Table-ronde Russo-Chinese-Franco-Polonaise in Eastern Siberia (Irkutsk) and China (Guilin) in 2002 or 2003. The subject of the meeting should be –“Human impact on karst environment in continental scale”. In Eastern Siberia the influence of big artificial lake’s system and industrial activity on karst will be the main scientific problem. Russian party of the meeting agrees with our project of organization of such meeting in their territory. For China we propose the influence of dense populated and mostly with agriculture activity regions on karst. Details should be discussed during personal meetings of all parties in this year. Propose of terms and general programme should be prepared up to the September 2001.
3. It was proposed that organizers of Table-ronde from Polish (Prof. M. Pulina and Dr. A. Tyc) and Russian (two persons from the Institute of Earth’s Crust) sides will participate in the Workshop of IGCP 448 in August/September 2001 in China. The Institute of Earth’s Crust is ready to receive delegation of Chinese co-organizers in Irkutsk in this year. Details of this participation and visits will be prepared by the correspondence on e-mail.
4. It is necessary to state that on base of co-operation of French, Russian and Polish researchers on Siberia Association Europe-Baikal under auspices of UNESCO were established. The Association has its own building in Irkutsk. Prof. Jean-Noel Salomon, who participated on our meeting in Cieszyn is a President of the Association. President of France and Russia signed the agreement of the Association and it is very good base for our scientific activity in Siberia now.
More results of the discussion as well as details of planned activity in frame of IGCP 448 will be exchanged by e-mail between mentioned above parties of the co-operation.