自然资源部岩岩溶动力学重点实验室

表层岩溶生态系统水分储集运移和植被响应研究

KDL 601

项目名称:表层岩溶生态系统水分储集运移和植被响应研究

项目负责人:何师意

起止年限:2002-01~2005-1

总经费:24万人民币

经费来源:国家自然科学基金委员会

项目简介:
 结题中文摘要 本项目以典型表层岩溶生态系统为研究对象,以自动化监测技术、现场调查和野外试验为手段,研究了不同表层岩溶系统中碳、水、钙等物质的运移和储集过程,探索在植被、土壤及其它地被物有明显差异条件下,岩溶生态系统的调蓄功能差异,深化认识了表层岩溶系统的双层结构,为我南方岩溶区突出环境地质问题的治理和资源合理开发利用提供科学数据。主要研究成果包括:通过对表层系统碳库的研究,认为在有土壤和植被覆盖时,岩溶作用过程中的碳主要来自生态系统本身而不是母岩;降雨对大气碳具有重要"沉淀"作用,是碳的一个重要汇;不同植被类型表层岩溶系统对系统水份、空气湿度、气温、土温和近地表CO2浓度等具有明显调节作用,具有不同的水土保持效益;不同母岩的岩溶生态系统的植被优势种、属差异明显,由此形成的小生境、地被物及其持水性差异巨大;对典型岩溶表层系统种子库的试验研究没有取得满意结果,但食果动物、鸟类对种子传播起到一定作用。通过自动化监测手段,获得了典型表层岩溶泉水化学主要指标、气象指标、水文动态等的对应变化过程,为本项目及开展相关岩溶环境学科的深入研究,积累了大量科学数据和进行研究方法探索。 

结题英文摘要 Aimed to the typical epikarst ecosystems, and by the means of automatic monitoring techniques, field surveying and experiments, this project has made some studies on following aspects: the processes of the transfer and reposition of matters such as carbon, water and calcium in karst systems; probed into the differences of adjusting functions of karst ecosystems under the different conditions of surface covers; made more understandings to the "double layers" of epikarst systems. At the some time, the scientific data acquired during the project research is helpful to the curing of outstanding environmental problems and to the reasonable development of resources in karst areas, South China. The achievement of this project can be briefly summed up as following: (1)the carbon contributing to karst processes mainly comes from ecological system itself under the condition of existence of vegetation and soil covers; (2)results indicates that the depositing processes of rainfall to CO2 is an important "sink" to global carbon cycle; (3)owing to the differences of vegetation and surface covering, the adjusting effect of ecosystem to environmental humidity, temperature and CO2 concentration near surface air which indicates different benefit of preventing water and soil from lose is marked; (4)the preponderant species of vegetation in the karst ecosystems which have different kinds of carbonate rocks are obviously variant, and this situation results to the clearly differences of the micro-habitat,structure of surface cover and water holding capacity; (5) the relevant study showed that the carpophagous animals and birds make a important role in the spreading of vegetation seeds. The designed experience for the study of seed reservoir was not able to obtain a satisfactory result. The online monitoring is important technical means in this project research, by the way, we obtained the corresponding dynamic processes among main hydrochemical and hydrological indexes of karst water springs, and meteorologic parameters. The understanding above will deepen the relevant research, accumulate scientific data and explore research methods.