自然资源部岩岩溶动力学重点实验室

多重胁迫下西南岩溶生态系统脆弱性和生态恢复能力研究

KDL 553

项目名称:多重胁迫下西南岩溶生态系统脆弱性和生态恢复能力研究

项目负责人:章程

起止年限:2003-01~2005-1

总经费:85万人民币

经费来源:国家自然科学基金委员会

项目简介:

结题中文摘要--西南岩溶生态环境的脆弱性主要表现在土壤中营养元素全量偏高,而有效态含量偏低,富钙偏碱的环境,制约着土壤营养成分的活化和释放;碳酸盐岩的分布与植物的空间分布有较好的对应关系,并制约人口分布,揭示岩溶石山地区承载力偏低,人类活动更具破坏力。表层岩溶带对环境变化十分敏感,响应及时。在时间尺度上可以是季节、昼夜,甚至是小时。应把水、岩、CO2气体作为一个整体来解释表层岩溶作用的水文地球化学行。监测也为进一步计算不同表层岩溶带的水资源及其调蓄能力奠定基础。发现碳酸酐酶(CA)广泛存在于西南岩溶区的植物、微生物和土壤环境中,探明了CA在岩溶生态环境中的稳定性,以及典型微生物和典型藻类表达胞外CA活性的环境条件。室内模拟试验表明微生物及其胞外CA是岩溶动力系统的重要驱动力,这对于阐明微生物及其CA在岩溶作用及元素迁移中的地位具有重要意义。证实了典型经济植物金银花具有旱生植物典型的形态和生理特征,可广泛用于岩溶区生态治理以及水土保持工作。对不同岩溶地质环境下蜈蚣草和黄荆适生状况对比研究表明,蜈蚣草适合于石漠化的早期治理阶段,在中后期治理中,选用CA活性较高的黄荆等落叶灌木或小乔木可能更为有效。 

结题英文摘要-- The main fragility of karst eco-systems in Southwest China presents a relatively higher total nutritive element contents and lower available contents in soil compared with non-carbonate area, calcium rich and alkaline setting can restrain soil nutrients from activation and release; distribution of carbonate rock and vegetation has a remarkable negative relationship, and population distribution can 
be restricted by the area of carbonate rock showed low population bearing capacity in karst regions. Monitoring data showed that epikarst is highly sensitive to environmental change and the response time scale may be seasons, diurnals, even hours. It is necessary to take water-rock-CO2 as a whole(system) for explanation of hydrochemical behavior of epikarst processes, furthermore, monitoring provided a foundation for calculation of water resources and its regulating ability in different epikarst system. It is found that carbonic anhydrase(CA) activity can be detected widespread in plants,microorganisms, and soils of Southwest China. The stability of CA in karst ecological environments as well as environmental factors in expression of extracellular activities of CA from typical microorganisms and typical algae are elucidated, which provide scientific base for study on the mechanisms of karst processes of CA. Simulated experimentsshowed that microorganisms and their extracellular CA are important driving forces in karst dynamic systems. These results have important significance in elucidating the status of microorganisms and their CA in karst processes and element migration in karst ecosystems. Furthermore, the ecological and physiological characteristics of Flos lonicerae adapted to the karst environments have been studied. Flos lonicerae has typical morphological and physiological characteristics of xerophil so that it can be utilized in ecological management as well as soil and water conservation in arid region. Comparative research has been done in t